Effects of Pindolol on Behaviour

Author/Year/ Country/Study Design/ PEDro Score/N



Greendyke & Kanter (1986)

Population: ABI; Mean Age=52yr; Gender: Male=9, Female=0; Mean Time Post Injury=7.8yr.
Treatment: In a crossover design, patients received pindolol or a placebo capsules for the first half of study. The treatment group received 60mg/d of pindolol for 10d, increased up to 100mg. Groups were then crossed-over. Supplemental psychotropic medication was given as needed.
Outcome Measure: Frequency of assaultive behaviour.

  1. Significant reduction of assaultive episodes, need for supplemental medication and hostility were demonstrated during pindolol treatment (p<0.05). 

  2. Significant improvements in patients’ willingness to communicate, and cooperation during treatment (p<0.025) and significant reduction of stereotyped behaviours (p<0.01).

PEDro=Physiotherapy Evidence Database rating scale score (Moseley et al. 2002).