Aarabi B, Hesdorffer DC, Ahn ES, Aresco C, Scalea TM, Eisenberg HM. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling due to severe head injury. J Neurosurg 2006; 104: 469-479.
Aarabi B, Hesdorffer DC, Simard JMet al. Comparative study of decompressive craniectomy after mass lesion evacuation in severe head injury. Neurosurgery 2009; 64: 927-939.
Abbasi M, Mohammadi E, Sheaykh RA. Effect of a regular family visiting program as an affective, auditory, and tactile stimulation on the consciousness level of comatose patients with a head injury. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2009; 6: 21-26.
Adamo MA, Drazin D, Waldman JB. Decompressive craniectomy and postoperative complication management in infants and toddlers with severe traumatic brain injuries. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2009; 3: 334-339.
Adelson PD, Wisniewski SR, Beca Jet al. Comparison of hypothermia and normothermia after severe traumatic brain injury in children (Cool Kids): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12: 546-553.
Adembri C, Venturi L, Pellegrini-Giampietro DE. Neuroprotective effects of propofol in acute cerebral injury. CNS Drug Rev 2007; 13: 333-351.
Agbeko RS, Pearson S, Peters MJ, McNames J, Goldstein B. Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure responses to head elevation changes in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2012; 13: e39-e47.
Albanese J, Durbec O, Viviand X, Potie F, Alliez B, Martin C. Sufentanil increases intracranial pressure in patients with head trauma. Anesthesiology 1993; 79: 493-497.
Albanese J, Viviand X, Potie F, Rey M, Alliez B, Martin C. Sufentanil, fentanyl, and alfentanil in head trauma patients: a study on cerebral hemodynamics. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 407-411.
Alderson P, Gadkary C, Signorini DF. Therapeutic hypothermia for head injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; CD001048.
Alderson P, Roberts I. Corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 1997; 314: 1855-1859.
Alderson P, Roberts I. Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD000196.
Baker AJ, Rhind SG, Morrison LJet al. Resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran reduces serum biomarker levels and correlates with outcome in severe traumatic brain injury patients. J Neurotrauma 2009; 26: 1227-1240.
Bao YH, Liang YM, Gao GY, Pan YH, Luo QZ, Jiang JY. Bilateral decompressive craniectomy for patients with malignant diffuse brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury: a 37-case study. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 341-347.
Battison C, Andrews PJ, Graham C, Petty T. Randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a 20% mannitol solution and a 7.5% saline/6% dextran solution on increased intracranial pressure after brain injury. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 196-202.
Bayir H, Adelson PD, Wisniewski SRet al. Therapeutic hypothermia preserves antioxidant defenses after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 689-695.
Biswas AK, Bruce DA, Sklar FH, Bokovoy JL, Sommerauer JF. Treatment of acute traumatic brain injury in children with moderate hypothermia improves intracranial hypertension. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 2742-2751.
Bracke M, Taylor AG, Kinney AB. External drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Am J Nurs 1978; 78: 1355-1358.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. III. Prophylactic hypothermia. J Neurotrauma 2007a; 24 Suppl 1: S21-S25.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. XI. Anesthetics, analgesics, and sedatives. J Neurotrauma 2007b; 24 Suppl 1: S71-S76.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. XV. Steroids. J Neurotrauma 2007c; 24 Suppl 1: S91-S95.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. II. Hyperosmolar therapy. J Neurotrauma 2007d; 24 Suppl 1: S14-S20.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma 2007e; 24 Suppl 1: S37-S44.
Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar Jet al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. XIV. Hyperventilation. J Neurotrauma 2007f; 24 Suppl 1: S87-S90.
Bunegin L, Albin MS, Ernst PS, Garcia C. Cerebrovascular responses to sufentanil citrate (SC) in primates with and without intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1989; 1: 138-139.
Carhuapoma JR, Gupta K, Coplin WM, Muddassir SM, Meratee MM. Treatment of refractory fever in the neurosciences critical care unit using a novel, water-circulating cooling device. A single-center pilot experience. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2003; 15: 313-318.
Carney NA, Ghajar J. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Introduction. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24 Suppl 1: S1-S2.
Chen L, Piao Y, Zeng F, Lu M, Kuang Y, Ki X. Moderate hypothermia therapy for patients with severe head injury. Chin J Traumatol 2001; 4: 164-167.
Clifton GL. Is keeping cool still hot? An update on hypothermia in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004; 10: 116-119.
Clifton GL, Choi SC, Miller ERet al. Intercenter variance in clinical trials of head trauma--experience of the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia. J Neurosurg 2001; 95: 751-755.
Clifton GL, Valadka A, Zygun Det al. Very early hypothermia induction in patients with severe brain injury (the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 131-139.
Coles JP, Minhas PS, Fryer TDet al. Effect of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow in traumatic head injury: clinical relevance and monitoring correlates. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 1950-1959.
Compagnone C, Murray GD, Teasdale GMet al. The management of patients with intradural post-traumatic mass lesions: a multicenter survey of current approaches to surgical management in 729 patients coordinated by the European Brain Injury Consortium. Neurosurgery 2005; 57: 1183-1192.
Cooper DJ, Myles PS, McDermott FTet al. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 1350-1357.
Cooper DJ, Rosenfeld JV, Murray Let al. Decompressive craniectomy in diffuse traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1493-1502.
Cooper JB, Jane JA, Alves WM, Cooper EB. Right median nerve electrical stimulation to hasten awakening from coma. Brain Inj 1999; 13: 261-267.
Cooper PR, Moody S, Clark WKet al. Dexamethasone and severe head injury. A prospective double-blind study. J Neurosurg 1979; 51: 307-316.
Corbett SM, Moore J, Rebuck JA, Rogers FB, Greene CM. Survival of propofol infusion syndrome in a head-injured patient. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 2479-2483.
Cremer OL, Moons KG, Bouman EA, Kruijswijk JE, de Smet AM, Kalkman CJ. Long-term propofol infusion and cardiac failure in adult head-injured patients. Lancet 2001; 357: 117-118.
Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Improving clinical outcomes from acute subdural hematomas with the emergency preoperative administration of high doses of mannitol: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2001; 49: 864-871.
Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Major clinical and physiological benefits of early high doses of mannitol for intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages with abnormal pupillary widening: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2002; 51: 628-637.
Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K, Facco E. Successful use of the new high-dose mannitol treatment in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 and bilateral abnormal pupillary widening: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 2004; 100: 376-383.
Daboussi A, Minville V, Leclerc-Foucras Set al. Cerebral hemodynamic changes in severe head injury patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2009; 21: 339-345.
Davis AE, Gimenez A. Cognitive-behavioral recovery in comatose patients following auditory sensory stimulation. J Neurosci Nurs 2003; 35: 202-9, 214.
Davis DP, Kimbro TA, Vilke GM. The use of midazolam for prehospital rapid-sequence intubation may be associated with a dose related increase in hypotension. Prehospital Emergency Care 2001; 5: 161-168.
de Nadal M, Munar F, Poca MA, Sahuquillo J, Garnacho A, Rossello J. Cerebral hemodynamic effects of morphine and fentanyl in patients with severe head injury: absence of correlation to cerebral autoregulation. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 11-19.
DeSalles AA, Kontos HA, Becker DPet al. Prognostic significance of ventricular CSF lactic acidosis in severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1986; 65: 615-624.
DeSalles AA, Muizelaar JP, Young HF. Hyperglycemia, cerebrospinal fluid lactic acidosis, and cerebral blood flow in severely head-injured patients. Neurosurgery 1987; 21: 45-50.
Diringer MN, Yundt K, Videen TOet al. No reduction in cerebral metabolism as a result of early moderate hyperventilation following severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2000; 92: 7-13.
Doyle JA, Davis DP, Hoyt DB. The use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2001; 50: 367-383.
Durward QJ, Amacher AL, Del Maestro RF, Sibbald WJ. Cerebral and cardiovascular responses to changes in head elevation in patients with intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg 1983; 59: 938-944.
Eisenberg HM, Frankowski RF, Contant CF, Marshall LF, Walker MD. High-dose barbiturate control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1988; 69: 15-23.
Engelhard K, Reeker W, Kochs E, Werner C. Effect of remifentanil on intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity in patients with head trauma. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48: 396-399.
Eshhar N, Striem S, Kohen R, Tirosh O, Biegon A. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of HU-211, a novel NMDA receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 283: 19-29.
Eskandari R, Filtz MR, Davis GE, Hoesch RE. Effective treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension after traumatic brain injury with repeated boluses of 14.6% hypertonic saline. J Neurosurg 2013.
Farling PA, Johnston JR, Coppel DL. Propofol infusion for sedation of patients with head injury in intensive care. A preliminary report. Anaesthesia 1989; 44: 222-226.
Fay T. Observation on generalized refrigeration in cases of severe cerebral trauma. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1945; 4: 611-619.
Feigenbaum JJ, Bergmann F, Richmond SAet al. Nonpsychotropic cannabinoid acts as a functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86: 9584-9587.
Feldman Z, Kanter MJ, Robertson CSet al. Effect of head elevation on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cerebral blood flow in head-injured patients. J Neurosurg 1992; 76: 207-211.
Flint AC, Manley GT, Gean AD, Hemphill JC, III, Rosenthal G. Post-operative expansion of hemorrhagic contusions after unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 503-512.
Fortune JB, Feustel PJ, Graca L, Hasselbarth J, Kuehler DH. Effect of hyperventilation, mannitol, and ventriculostomy drainage on cerebral blood flow after head injury. J Trauma 1995; 39: 1091-1097.
Francony G, Fauvage B, Falcon Det al. Equimolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline in the treatment of increased intracranial pressure. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 795-800.
Fried RC, Dickerson RN, Guenter PAet al. Barbiturate therapy reduces nitrogen excretion in acute head injury. J Trauma 1989; 29: 1558-1564.
Gal R, Cundrle I, Zimova I, Smrcka M. Mild hypothermia therapy for patients with severe brain injury. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2002; 104: 318-321.
Globus MY, Alonso O, Dietrich WD, Busto R, Ginsberg MD. Glutamate release and free radical production following brain injury: effects of posttraumatic hypothermia. J Neurochem 1995; 65: 1704-1711.
Grumme T, Baethmann A, Kolodziejczyk Det al. Treatment of patients with severe head injury by triamcinolone: a prospective, controlled multicenter clinical trial of 396 cases. Res Exp Med (Berl) 1995; 195: 217-229.
Gruner ML, Terhaag D. Multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) in rehabilitation after brain injury. Brain Inj 2000; 14: 585-594.
Guerra WK, Piek J, Gaab MR. Decompressive craniectomy to treat intracranial hypertension in head injury patients. Intensive Care Med 1999; 25: 1327-1329.
Harris OA, Muh CR, Surles MCet al. Discrete cerebral hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg 2009; 110: 1256-1264.
Hartl R, Bardt TF, Kiening KL, Sarrafzadeh AS, Schneider GH, Unterberg AW. Mannitol decreases ICP but does not improve brain-tissue pO2 in severely head-injured patients with intracranial hypertension. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1997; 70: 40-42.
Ho CL, Wang CM, Lee KK, Ng I, Ang BT. Cerebral oxygenation, vascular reactivity, and neurochemistry following decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2008; 108: 943-949.
Hoefnagel D, Dammers R, Ter Laak-Poort MP, Avezaat CJ. Risk factors for infections related to external ventricular drainage. Acta Neurochir (Wien ) 2008; 150: 209-214.
Horn P, Munch E, Vajkoczy Pet al. Hypertonic saline solution for control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with exhausted response to mannitol and barbiturates. Neurol Res 1999; 21: 758-764.
Howard JL, Cipolle MD, Anderson Met al. Outcome after decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2008; 65: 380-385.
Huang AP, Tu YK, Tsai YHet al. Decompressive craniectomy as the primary surgical intervention for hemorrhagic contusion. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 1347-1354.
Hughes S, Colantonio A, Santaguida PL, Paton T. Amantadine to enhance readiness for rehabilitation following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2005; 19: 1197-1206.
Hull RD, Raskob GE, Pineo GFet al. Subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin compared with continuous intravenous heparin in the treatment of proximal-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 975-982.
Hutchinson PJ, Kolias AG, Czosnyka M, Kirkpatrick PJ, Pickard JD, Menon DK. Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury. BMJ 2013; 346: f1000.
Hutchison JS, Ward RE, Lacroix Jet al. Hypothermia therapy after traumatic brain injury in children. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 2447-2456.
Ichai C, Armando G, Orban JCet al. Sodium lactate versus mannitol in the treatment of intracranial hypertensive episodes in severe traumatic brain-injured patients. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35: 471-479.
James HE. Analysis of therapeutic modalities for head-injured children. Childs Brain 1979; 5: 263-271.
James ML, Olson DM, Graffagnino C. A pilot study of cerebral and haemodynamic physiological changes during sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol in patients with acute brain injury. Anaesth Intensive Care 2012; 40: 949-957.
Jiang J, Yu M, Zhu C. Effect of long-term mild hypothermia therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: 1-year follow-up review of 87 cases. J Neurosurg 2000; 93: 546-549.
Jiang JY, Xu W, Li WPet al. Efficacy of standard trauma craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension with severe traumatic brain injury: a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study. J Neurotrauma 2005; 22: 623-628.
Johannigman JA, Davis K, Jr., Miller SLet al. Prone positioning for acute respiratory distress syndrome in the surgical intensive care unit: who, when, and how long? Surgery 2000; 128: 708-716.
Johnson DA, Roethig-Johnston K, Richards D. Biochemical and physiological parameters of recovery in acute severe head injury: responses to multisensory stimulation. Brain Inj 1993; 7: 491-499.
Karabinis A, Mandragos K, Stergiopoulos Set al. Safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil versus standard hypnotic-based regimens in intensive care unit patients with brain injuries: a randomised, controlled trial (ISRCTN50308308). Crit Care 2004; 8: R268-R280.
Kater KM. Response of head-injured patients to sensory stimulation. West J Nurs Res 1989; 11: 20-33.
Kelly DF, Goodale DB, Williams Jet al. Propofol in the treatment of moderate and severe head injury: a randomized, prospective double-blinded pilot trial. J Neurosurg 1999; 90: 1042-1052.
Kerr EM, Marion D, Sereika MSet al. The effect of cerebrospinal fluid drainage on cerebral perfusion in traumatic brain injured adults. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2000; 12: 324-333.
Kerr ME, Weber BB, Sereika SM, Wilberger J, Marion DW. Dose response to cerebrospinal fluid drainage on cerebral perfusion in traumatic brain-injured adults. Neurosurg Focus 2001; 11: E1.
Kerwin AJ, Schinco MA, Tepas JJ, III, Renfro WH, Vitarbo EA, Muehlberger M. The use of 23.4% hypertonic saline for the management of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a pilot study. J Trauma 2009; 67: 277-282.
Khanna S, Davis D, Peterson Bet al. Use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1144-1151.
Knoller N, Levi L, Shoshan Iet al. Dexanabinol (HU-211) in the treatment of severe closed head injury: a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 548-554.
Krimchansky BZ, Keren O, Sazbon L, Groswasser Z. Differential time and related appearance of signs, indicating improvement in the state of consciousness in vegetative state traumatic brain injury (VS-TBI) patients after initiation of dopamine treatment. Brain Inj 2004; 18: 1099-1105.
Lal D, Weiland S, Newton M, Flaten A, Schurr M. Prehospital hyperventilation after brain injury: a prospective analysis of prehospital and early hospital hyperventilation of the brain-injured patient. Prehosp Disaster Med 2003; 18: 20-23.
Lauer KK, Connolly LA, Schmeling WT. Opioid sedation does not alter intracranial pressure in head injured patients. Can J Anaesth 1997; 44: 929-933.
Lavinio A, Timofeev I, Nortje Jet al. Cerebrovascular reactivity during hypothermia and rewarming. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 237-244.
Ledwith MB, Bloom S, Maloney-Wilensky E, Coyle B, Polomano RC, Le Roux PD. Effect of body position on cerebral oxygenation and physiologic parameters in patients with acute neurological conditions. J Neurosci Nurs 2010; 42: 280-287.
Lee HC, Chuang HC, Cho DY, Cheng KF, Lin PH, Chen CC. Applying cerebral hypothermia and brain oxygen monitoring in treating severe traumatic brain injury. World Neurosurg 2010; 74: 654-660.
Lee ST. Intracranial pressure changes during positioning of patients with severe head injury. Heart Lung 1989; 18: 411-414.
Lescot T, Degos V, Zouaoui A, Preteux F, Coriat P, Puybasset L. Opposed effects of hypertonic saline on contusions and noncontused brain tissue in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2006; 34: 3029-3033.
Levin HS, Saydjari C, Eisenberg HMet al. Vegetative state after closed-head injury. A Traumatic Coma Data Bank Report. Arch Neurol 1991; 48: 580-585.
Li G, Wen L, Yang XF, Zheng XJ, Zhan RY, Liu WG. Efficacy of large decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury. Chin J Traumatol 2008; 11: 253-256.
Li H, Lu G, Shi W, Zheng S. Protective effect of moderate hypothermia on severe traumatic brain injury in children. J Neurotrauma 2009; 26: 1905-1909.
Liu JT, Wang CH, Chou IC, Sun SS, Koa CH, Cooper E. Regaining consciousness for prolonged comatose patients with right median nerve stimulation. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2003; 87: 11-14.
Liu WG, Qiu WS, Zhang Y, Wang WM, Lu F, Yang XF. Effects of selective brain cooling in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. J Int Med Res 2006; 34: 58-64.
Llompart-Pou JA, Abadal JM, Perez-Barcena Jet al. Long-term follow-up of patients with post-traumatic refractory high intracranial pressure treated with lumbar drainage. Anaesth Intensive Care 2011; 39: 79-83.
Llompart-Pou JA, Perez-Barcena J, Raurich JMet al. Effect of barbiturate coma on adrenal response in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Endocrinol Invest 2007; 30: 393-398.
Maas AI, Dearden M, Teasdale GMet al. EBIC-guidelines for management of severe head injury in adults. European Brain Injury Consortium. Acta Neurochir (Wien ) 1997; 139: 286-294.
Maas AI, Murray G, Henney H, IIIet al. Efficacy and safety of dexanabinol in severe traumatic brain injury: results of a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 38-45.
March K. Intracranial pressure monitoring: why monitor? AACN Clin Issues 2005; 16: 456-475.
Marion DW. Therapeutic moderate hypothermia for severe traumatic brain injury. J Intensive Care Med 1997; 12: 239-248.
Marion DW, Obrist WD, Carlier PM, Penrod LE, Darby JM. The use of moderate therapeutic hypothermia for patients with severe head injuries: a preliminary report. J Neurosurg 1993; 79: 354-362.
Marion DW, Penrod LE, Kelsey SFet al. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 540-546.
Marshall LF, Smith RW, Shapiro HM. The outcome with aggressive treatment in severe head injuries. Part II: acute and chronic barbiturate administration in the management of head injury. J Neurosurg 1979; 50: 26-30.
Marx W, Shah N, Long Cet al. Sufentanil, alfentanil, and fentanyl: impact on cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with brain tumors. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1989; 1: 3-7.
McClelland M, Woster P, Sweasey T, Hoff JT. Continuous midazolam/atracurium infusions for the management of increased intracranial pressure. J Neurosci Nurs 1995; 27: 96-101.
McCollam JS, O'Neil MG, Norcross ED, Byrne TK, Reeves ST. Continuous infusions of lorazepam, midazolam, and propofol for sedation of the critically ill surgery trauma patient: a prospective, randomized comparison. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 2454-2458.
McMahon MA, Vargus-Adams JN, Michaud LJ, Bean J. Effects of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness caused by acquired brain injury: a pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 88: 525-532.
Mechoulam R, Feigenbaum JJ, Lander Net al. Enantiomeric cannabinoids: stereospecificity of psychotropic activity. Experientia 1988; 44: 762-764.
Meier U, Ahmadi S, Killeen T, Al-Zain FT, Lemcke J. Long-term outcomes following decompressive craniectomy for severe head injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2008; 102: 29-31.
Meixensberger J, Baunach S, Amschler J, Dings J, Roosen K. Influence of body position on tissue-pO2, cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure in patients with acute brain injury. Neurol Res 1997; 19: 249-253.
Metz C, Gobel L, Gruber M, Hoerauf KH, Taeger K. Pharmacokinetics of human cerebral opioid extraction: a comparative study on sufentanil, fentanyl, and alfentanil in a patient after severe head injury. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 1559-1567.
Meythaler JM, Brunner RC, Johnson A, Novack TA. Amantadine to improve neurorecovery in traumatic brain injury-associated diffuse axonal injury: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2002; 17: 300-313.
Mitchell S, Bradley VA, Welch JL, Britton PG. Coma arousal procedure: a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of head injury. Brain Inj 1990; 4: 273-279.
Morgalla MH, Will BE, Roser F, Tatagiba M. Do long-term results justify decompressive craniectomy after severe traumatic brain injury? J Neurosurg 2008; 109: 685-690.
Moseley AM, Herbert RD, Sherrington C, Maher CG. Evidence for physiotherapy practice: a survey of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Aust J Physiother 2002; 48: 43-49.
Muizelaar JP, Marmarou A, Ward JDet al. Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury: a randomized clinical trial. J Neurosurg 1991; 75: 731-739.
Munch E, Horn P, Schurer L, Piepgras A, Paul T, Schmiedek P. Management of severe traumatic brain injury by decompressive craniectomy. Neurosurgery 2000; 47: 315-322.
Murad A, Ghostine S, Colohan AR. Controlled lumbar drainage in medically refractory increased intracranial pressure. A safe and effective treatment. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2008; 102: 89-91.
Murad A, Ghostine S, Colohan AR. A case for further investigating the use of controlled lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage for the control of intracranial pressure. World Neurosurg 2012; 77: 160-165.
Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer Set al. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 874-884.
Nekludov M, Bellander BM, Mure M. Oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure improved in the prone position. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 932-936.
Ng I, Lim J, Wong HB. Effects of head posture on cerebral hemodynamics: its influences on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cerebral oxygenation. Neurosurgery 2004; 54: 593-597.
Noda R, Maeda Y, Yoshino A. Therapeutic time window for musicokinetic therapy in a persistent vegetative state after severe brain damage. Brain Inj 2004; 18: 509-515.
Nordby HK, Nesbakken R. The effect of high dose barbiturate decompression after severe head injury. A controlled clinical trial. Acta Neurochir (Wien ) 1984; 72: 157-166.
Oddo M, Levine JM, Frangos Set al. Effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline on cerebral oxygenation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 916-920.
Olivecrona M, Rodling-Wahlstrom M, Naredi S, Koskinen LO. Effective ICP reduction by decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury treated by an ICP-targeted therapy. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24: 927-935.
Otani N, Takasato Y, Masaoka Het al. Surgical outcome following a decompressive craniectomy for acute epidural hematoma patients presenting with associated massive brain swelling. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2010; 106: 261-264.
Otterspoor LC, Kalkman CJ, Cremer OL. Update on the propofol infusion syndrome in ICU management of patients with head injury. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2008; 21: 544-551.
Papazian L, Albanese J, Thirion X, Perrin G, Durbec O, Martin C. Effect of bolus doses of midazolam on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with severe head injury. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71: 267-271.
Pascual JL, Maloney-Wilensky E, Reilly PMet al. Resuscitation of hypotensive head-injured patients: is hypertonic saline the answer? Am Surg 2008; 74: 253-259.
Patrick PD, Blackman JA, Mabry JL, Buck ML, Gurka MJ, Conaway MR. Dopamine agonist therapy in low-response children following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Child Neurology 2006; 21: 879-885.
Pelosi P, Brazzi L, Gattinoni L. Prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 1017-1028.
Perez-Barcena J, Barcelo B, Homar Jet al. (Comparison of the effectiveness of pentobarbital and thiopental in patients with refractory intracranial hypertension. Preliminary report of 20 patients). Neurocirugia (Astur ) 2005; 16: 5-12.
Perez-Barcena J, Llompart-Pou JA, Homar Jet al. Pentobarbital versus thiopental in the treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension in patients with traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care 2008; 12: R112.
Peri CV, Shaffrey ME, Farace Eet al. Pilot study of electrical stimulation on median nerve in comatose severe brain injured patients: 3-month outcome. Brain Inj 2001; 15: 903-910.
Pierce JP, Lyle DM, Quine S, Evans NJ, Morris J, Fearnside MR. The effectiveness of coma arousal intervention. Brain Inj 1990; 4: 191-197.
Polderman KH, Tjong Tjin JR, Peerdeman SM, Vandertop WP, Girbes AR. Effects of therapeutic hypothermia on intracranial pressure and outcome in patients with severe head injury. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 1563-1573.
Polin RS, Shaffrey ME, Bogaev CAet al. Decompressive bifrontal craniectomy in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic cerebral edema. Neurosurgery 1997; 41: 84-92.
Qiu W, Guo C, Shen Het al. Effects of unilateral decompressive craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care 2009; 13: R185.
Qiu W, Shen H, Zhang Yet al. Noninvasive selective brain cooling by head and neck cooling is protective in severe traumatic brain injury. J Clin Neurosci 2006; 13: 995-1000.
Qiu W, Zhang Y, Sheng Het al. Effects of therapeutic mild hypothermia on patients with severe traumatic brain injury after craniotomy. J Crit Care 2007; 22: 229-235.
Qureshi AI, Suarez JI, Bhardwaj Aet al. Use of hypertonic (3%) saline/acetate infusion in the treatment of cerebral edema: Effect on intracranial pressure and lateral displacement of the brain. Crit Care Med 1998; 26: 440-446.
Rea GL, Rockswold GL. Barbiturate therapy in uncontrolled intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery 1983; 12: 401-404.
Resnick DK, Marion DW, Darby JM. The effect of hypothermia on the incidence of delayed traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1994; 34: 252-255.
Rhind SG, Crnko NT, Baker AJet al. Prehospital resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran modulates inflammatory, coagulation and endothelial activation marker profiles in severe traumatic brain injured patients. J Neuroinflammation 2010; 7: 5.
Roberts I. Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; CD000033.
Roberts I, Yates D, Sandercock Pet al. Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 1321-1328.
Rockoff MA, Marshall LF, Shapiro HM. High-dose barbiturate therapy in humans: a clinical review of 60 patients. Ann Neurol 1979; 6: 194-199.
Rockswold GL, Solid CA, Paredes-Andrade E, Rockswold SB, Jancik JT, Quickel RR. Hypertonic saline and its effect on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and brain tissue oxygen. Neurosurgery 2009; 65: 1035-1041.
Sabsovich I, Rehman Z, Yunen J, Coritsidis G. Propofol infusion syndrome: a case of increasing morbidity with traumatic brain injury. Am J Crit Care 2007; 16: 82-85.
Sahuquillo J, Arikan F. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; CD003983.
Salvatore C, Marco M, Antonio R, Salvatore I, Eugenio B. Combined internal uncusectomy and decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of severe closed head injury: experience with 80 cases. J Neurosurg 2008; 108: 74-79.
Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera JA, Caballero-Cubedo RE, Perez-Vela JL, mbros-Checa A, Cantalapiedra-Santiago JA, ted-Lopez E. Propofol versus midazolam: safety and efficacy for sedating the severe trauma patient. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 1219-1224.
Saniova B, Drobny M, Kneslova L, Minarik M. The outcome of patients with severe head injuries treated with amantadine sulphate. J Neural Transm 2004; 111: 511-514.
Sawyer E, Mauro LS, Ohlinger MJ. Amantadine enhancement of arousal and cognition after traumatic brain injury. Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42: 247-252.
Sayre MR, Daily SW, Stern SA, Storer DL, van Loveren HR, Hurst JM. Out-of-hospital administration of mannitol to head-injured patients does not change systolic blood pressure. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 840-848.
Schalen W, Sonesson B, Messeter K, Nordstrom G, Nordstrom CH. Clinical outcome and cognitive impairment in patients with severe head injuries treated with barbiturate coma. Acta Neurochir (Wien ) 1992; 117: 153-159.
Schatzmann C, Heissler HE, Konig Ket al. Treatment of elevated intracranial pressure by infusions of 10% saline in severely head injured patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl 1998; 71: 31-33.
Schneider WN, Drew-Cates J, Wong TM, Dombovy ML. Cognitive and behavioural efficacy of amantadine in acute traumatic brain injury: an initial double-blind placebo-controlled study. Brain Inj 1999; 13: 863-872.
Scholz J, Bause H, Schulz Met al. Pharmacokinetics and effects on intracranial pressure of sufentanil in head trauma patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1994; 38: 369-372.
Schubert A. Side effects of mild hypothermia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1995; 7: 139-147.
Schulz-Stiibner S, Thiex R. Raising the head-of-bed by 30 degrees reduces ICP and improves CPP without compromising cardiac output in euvolemic patients with traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a practice unit. 2006. p. 173-80.
Schwartz ML, Tator CH, Rowed DW, Reid SR, Meguro K, Andrews DF. The University of Toronto head injury treatment study: a prospective, randomized comparison of pentobarbital and mannitol. Can J Neurol Sci 1984; 11: 434-440.
Shackford SR, Bourguignon PR, Wald SL, Rogers FB, Osler TM, Clark DE. Hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with head injury: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Trauma 1998; 44: 50-58.
Shiozaki T, Kato A, Taneda Met al. Little benefit from mild hypothermia therapy for severely head injured patients with low intracranial pressure. J Neurosurg 1999; 91: 185-191.
Shiozaki T, Sugimoto H, Taneda Met al. Effect of mild hypothermia on uncontrollable intracranial hypertension after severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1993; 79: 363-368.
Shohami E, Novikov M, Bass R. Long-term effect of HU-211, a novel non-competitive NMDA antagonist, on motor and memory functions after closed head injury in the rat. Brain Res 1995; 674: 55-62.
Simma B, Burger R, Falk M, Sacher P, Fanconi S. A prospective, randomized, and controlled study of fluid management in children with severe head injury: lactated Ringer's solution versus hypertonic saline. Crit Care Med 1998; 26: 1265-1270.
Skoglund TS, Eriksson-Ritzen C, Jensen C, Rydenhag B. Aspects on decompressive craniectomy in patients with traumatic head injuries. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23: 1502-1509.
Smith H, Sinson G, Varelas P. Vasopressors and propofol infusion syndrome in severe head trauma. Neurocrit Care 2009; 10: 166-172.
Smith HP, Kelly DL, Jr., McWhorter JMet al. Comparison of mannitol regimens in patients with severe head injury undergoing intracranial monitoring. J Neurosurg 1986; 65: 820-824.
Sorani MD, Morabito D, Rosenthal G, Giacomini KM, Manley GT. Characterizing the dose-response relationship between mannitol and intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury patients using a high-frequency physiological data collection system. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 291-298.
Sperry RJ, Bailey PL, Reichman MV, Peterson JC, Petersen PB, Pace NL. Fentanyl and sufentanil increase intracranial pressure in head trauma patients. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 416-420.
Stewart L, Bullock R, Rafferty C, Fitch W, Teasdale GM. Propofol sedation in severe head injury fails to control high ICP, but reduces brain metabolism. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien ) 1994; 60: 544-546.
Stover JF, Stocker R. Barbiturate coma may promote reversible bone marrow suppression in patients with severe isolated traumatic brain injury. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54: 529-534.
Suarez JI. Hypertonic saline for cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure. Cleve Clin J Med 2004; 71 Suppl 1: S9-13.
Tateishi A, Soejima Y, Taira Yet al. Feasibility of the titration method of mild hypothermia in severely head-injured patients with intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery 1998; 42: 1065-1069.
Thelandersson A, Cider A, Nellgard B. Prone position in mechanically ventilated patients with reduced intracranial compliance. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 937-941.
Thiagarajan A, Goverdhan PD, Chari P, Somasunderam K. The effect of hyperventilation and hyperoxia on cerebral venous oxygen saturation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 850-853.
Thorat JD, Wang EC, Lee KK, Seow WT, Ng I. Barbiturate therapy for patients with refractory intracranial hypertension following severe traumatic brain injury: its effects on tissue oxygenation, brain temperature and autoregulation. J Clin Neurosci 2008; 15: 143-148.
Tillett JM, Marmarou A, Agnew JP, Choi SC, Ward JD. Effect of continuous rotational therapy on intracranial pressure in the severely brain-injured patient. Crit Care Med 1993; 21: 1005-1011.
Timofeev I, Czosnyka M, Nortje Jet al. Effect of decompressive craniectomy on intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal compensation following traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 2008a; 108: 66-73.
Timofeev I, hyot-Fizelier C, Keong Net al. Ventriculostomy for control of raised ICP in acute traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2008b; 102: 99-104.
Tokutomi T, Miyagi T, Takeuchi Y, Karukaya T, Katsuki H, Shigemori M. Effect of 35 degrees C hypothermia on intracranial pressure and clinical outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2009; 66: 166-173.
Tokutomi T, Morimoto K, Miyagi T, Yamaguchi S, Ishikawa K, Shigemori M. Optimal temperature for the management of severe traumatic brain injury: effect of hypothermia on intracranial pressure, systemic and intracranial hemodynamics, and metabolism. Neurosurgery 2003; 52: 102-111.
Tuettenberg J, Czabanka M, Horn Pet al. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage for the treatment of refractory increased intracranial pressure. J Neurosurg 2009; 110: 1200-1208.
Ucar T, Akyuz M, Kazan S, Tuncer R. Role of decompressive surgery in the management of severe head injuries: prognostic factors and patient selection. J Neurotrauma 2005; 22: 1311-1318.
Vargus-Adams JN, McMahon MA, Michaud LJ, Bean J, Vinks AA. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness due to acquired brain injury: preliminary findings using a sparse-sampling technique. PM&R 2010; 2: 37-42.
Vialet R, Albanese J, Thomachot Let al. Isovolume hypertonic solutes (sodium chloride or mannitol) in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension: 2 mL/kg 7.5% saline is more effective than 2 mL/kg 20% mannitol. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: 1683-1687.
Wakai A, Roberts I, Schierhout G. Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; CD001049.
Ward JD, Becker DP, Miller JDet al. Failure of prophylactic barbiturate coma in the treatment of severe head injury. J Neurosurg 1985; 62: 383-388.
Ware ML, Nemani VM, Meeker M, Lee C, Morabito DJ, Manley GT. Effects of 23.4% sodium chloride solution in reducing intracranial pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. Neurosurgery 2005; 57: 727-736.
Warner KJ, Cuschieri J, Copass MK, Jurkovich GJ, Bulger EM. The impact of prehospital ventilation on outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2007; 62: 1330-1336.
Werner C, Kochs E, Bause H, Hoffman WE, Schulte am EJ. Effects of sufentanil on cerebral hemodynamics and intracranial pressure in patients with brain injury. Anesthesiology 1995; 83: 721-726.
Whyte J, Katz D, Long Det al. Predictors of outcome in prolonged posttraumatic disorders of consciousness and assessment of medication effects: A multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 453-462.
Williams RF, Magnotti LJ, Croce MAet al. Impact of decompressive craniectomy on functional outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2009; 66: 1570-1574.
Wilson SL, Cranny SM, Andrews K. The efficacy of music for stimulation in prolonged coma - four single case experiments. Clinical Rehabilitation 1992; 6: 181-187.
Wilson SL, Powell GE, Brock D, Thwaites H. Vegetative state and responses to sensory stimulation: an analysis of 24 cases. Brain Inj 1996; 10: 807-818.
Winkelman C. Effect of backrest position on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures in traumatically brain-injured adults. Am J Crit Care 2000; 9: 373-380.
Wood RL, Winkowski TB, Miller JL, Tierney L, Goldman L. Evaluating sensory regulation as a method to improve awareness in patients with altered states of consciousness: a pilot study. Brain Inj 1992; 6: 411-418.
Yamamoto T, Mori K, Maeda M. Assessment of prognostic factors in severe traumatic brain injury patients treated by mild therapeutic cerebral hypothermia therapy. Neurol Res 2002; 24: 789-795.
Yan Y, Tang W, Deng Z, Zhong D, Yang G. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and neuroelectrophysiology in a clinical study of severe brain injury and mild hypothermia. J Clin Neurosci 2010; 17: 196-200.
Yang XF, Wen L, Shen Fet al. Surgical complications secondary to decompressive craniectomy in patients with a head injury: a series of 108 consecutive cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien ) 2008; 150: 1241-1247.
Zabramski JM, Whiting D, Darouiche ROet al. Efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated external ventricular drain catheters: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Neurosurg 2003; 98: 725-730.
Zafonte RD, Lexell J, Cullen N. Possible applications for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: part 2. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2001; 16: 112-116.