Table 2: Functional Outcomes Post TBI based on Age and Injury Severity

 

 Author/Year/Country/ Study Design/N

Sample Characteristics

Study Findings

Outcome at Discharge

Ritchie et al. (2000)
Australia
Case Series
N=191

Patients >66 years old, CGS 3-15 incoming, recovery at discharge by GOS

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-8 = 0.0%
GCS 9-12 = 27.5%
GCS 13-15 = 73.5%

GOS 1-2
GCS 3-8 = 87.8%
GCS 9-12 = 31%
GCS 13-15 = 13.3%

Pennings et al. (1993)
USA
Observational
N=169

 

Patients 20-40 and >60 years old, GCS <5 incoming, recovery at discharge by GOS

GOS 4-5
<40 years = 38%
>60 years = 2%

GOS 1-2
<40 years = 44%
>60 years = 93%

Kotwica & Jakubowski (1992)
Poland
Case Series
N=136

Patients >70 years old, GCS 3-15 incoming, recovery at discharge by GOS

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-8 = 4%
GCS 9-12 = 28%
GCS 13-15 = 80%

GOS 1-2
GCS 3-8 = 91%
GCS 9-12 = 40%
GCS 13-15 = 20%

Pentland et al. (1986)
Scotland
Cohort
N=2,019

 

Patients <65 and >65 years old, GCS scores 3-14 incoming, recovery at one month post-injury by GOS

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-7
<65 years = 22%
>65 years = 4%

GCS 8-12
<65 years = 86%
>65 years = 46%

GCS 13-14
<65 years = 99%
>65 years = 96%

GOS 1-3
GCS 3-7
<65 years = 78%
>65 years = 96%

GCS 8-12
<65 years = 14%
>65 years = 55%

GCS 13-14
<65 years = 1%
>65 years = 4%

Outcome at Six Months Post Injury

Utomo et al. (2009)
The Netherlands
Case Series
N=310

Patients >65 years old, AIS 4-5 incoming, recovery at six months post-injury by GOS

AIS 4-5
GOS 1-2 = 8% 
GOS 3 = 49.5%
GOS 4 = 11%
GOS 5 = 31.5%

Mohindra et al. (2008)
India
Case Series
N=1,071

Patients 20-40 and >70 years old, GCS 3-15 pre-operative, recovery at six months post-injury

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-8
20-40 years = 42.1%
>70 years = 3.0%

GCS 9-12
20-40 years = 72.5%
>70 years = 14.3%

GCS 13-15
20-40 years = 90.0%
>70 years = 80%

GOS 1-2
GCS 3-8
20-40 years = 42.6%
>70 years = 96.9%

GCS 9-12
20-40 years = 21.1%
>70 years = 85.7%

GCS 13-15
20-40 years = 7.6%
>70 years = 0%

Gomez et al. (2000)
Spain
Case Study
N=810

Patients 14-64 and >65 years old, GCS <8 incoming, recovery at six months post-injury

GOS 1-2
15-35 years = 45%
36-45 years = 57%
46-64 years = 54%
>65 years = 88%

GOS 4-5
15-35 years = 44%
36-45 years = 30%
46-64 years = 24%
>65 years = 8%

Ross et al. (1992)
USA
Observational
N=195

Patients >65 years old, GCS 3-15 incoming, recovery at six months post-injury by GOS

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-8 = 4%
GCS 9-12 = 12%
GCS 13-15 = 27%

GOS 1-2
GCS 3-8 = 91%
GCS 9-12 = 71%
GCS 13-15 = 55%

Vollmer et al. (1991)
USA
Case Series
N=661

Patients 15-55 and >56 years old, GCS 3-15 incoming,  recovery six months post-injury by GOS

GOS 4-5
16-35 years = 49%
36-45 years = 33%
46-55 years = 22%
>56 years = 9%

GOS 1-3
16-35 years = 51%
36-45 years = 66%
46-55 years = 77%
>56 years = 91%

Outcome at Twelve Months Post Injury

Brazinova et al. (2010)
Austria
Case Series
N=100

Patients ≥66 years old, GCS 3-4 incoming, mortality rate/recovery by GOS one year post-injury

GOS 1-3
GCS 3-4 = 91%           

GOS 4-5
GCS 3-4 = 9%

Dikmen et al. (1995)
USA
Observational
N=466

Patients <70 and <70 years old, GCS 3-15 incoming, recovery one year post-injury by GOS

GOS 4-5
20-29 years = >75%
30-39 years = 70%
40-49 years = 60%
50 - 59 years = 30%
60-69 years = 25%
>70 years = 20%

Katz & Alexander (1994)
USA
Observational
N=243

Patients <60 and >60 years old, PTA <3 months, LOC <2 weeks incoming, recovery at one year post-injury by GOS

GOS 4
<20 years = 93%
20-39 years = 90%
40-59 years = 88%
>60 years = 53%

GOS 2-3
<20 years = 8%
20-39 years = 10%
40-59 years = 10%
>60 years = 43%

Alberico et al. (1987)
USA
Case Series
N=330

 

Patients <60 and >60 years old, GCS ≤ 7 incoming, recovery at one year post-injury by GOS

GOS 4
0-20 years = 45%
2-40 years = 35%
41-59 years = 15%
>60 years = 5%

GOS 1
0-20 years = 25%
20-40 years = 32%
41-59 years = 50%
>60 years = 70%

Note. GCS=Glasgow Coma Scale, GOS= Glasgow Outcome Scale, LOC= Length of Coma, AIS= Abbreviated Injury Score.